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Hi everyone! The start today (Tuesday, November 22), so, as promised, a little on time for @histodons!

Did the prehistoric men and women (i.e. before 3,000 BCE) leave disabled people to die without help or did they leave them to be abandoned?

Spoiler: NO!

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Programme 2022-2023 du séminaire "Construire une nouvelle histoire du handicap et de la surdité" de l'EHESS est en ligne!

Première séance le 29 novembre, inscription libre et gratuite ici : enseignements.ehess.fr/2022-20

12 séances cette année, un mardi sur 2 (environ), de 16h à 18h!!

Le séminaire est en français, LSF et sous-titré!

Ci-dessous, les résumés des interventions, que vous pouvez retrouver au lien suivant : dishist.hypotheses.org/2575

@histodons

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Week 2 of the !

Fasten your seatbelts, we're off to , , and the Empire to see what information we can have on !

I will be your guide!

@histodons @disability @disabilityhistory

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Hi Mastodon!

Here is my !

I am a fellow from the FNRS in , at ULiège (UR "Transitions"), on of people!

So, an "expert" on , , and mostly!

My first book will be out on January 23! Its title: "Disabled clerics in the Late Middle Ages, Un/suitable for divine services?"

I am both proud and frightened, but for now, I have to finish the , so, see you soon here!

Finally, as always, each situation was unique and could differ from 1 person to another, depending on their gender, social category, the nature of their disability, negotiations with the community, & even from one era to another!

There is no such thing as a universal history of the disability at a given time, but all this depends on an intersectional analysis that allows us to construct a fragment of the experiences of disabled people's life.

See you next week for the @histodons!

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Like the Greeks, even if the very complex medical system in antiquity talks about disability, it does not remedy it: disability is then treated in a very pragmatic and practical way.

So, functional limitation; aesthetic criteria; social perception & category were crucial.

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However, there were not just slaves: in the Digest & Justinian Code, there is nothing to prevent the physically disabled from being citizens, while the blind, deaf, dumb, & mentally disabled may have been prevented from participating in civic life for practical reasons.

Disabled people may have taken part in battles, such as Marcus Sergius Silus Roman general (Second Punic War, 218 to 201 BC), the first documented use of a metal prosthetic hand that allowed him to hold his shield in battle.

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In the Roman Empire, disability could be seen as a physical reflection of a moral perversion & punishment from the gods. However, recent studies show that this does not necessarily condition the effective treatment of disabled people.

The terms were imprecise. The rare time disability is clearly defined is in the case of the sale of slaves, so that the buyer can bring a claim against the seller!

See for example this dancing dwarf as an entertainer to amuse the guests. ⬇️

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In Athens, one law (5-4 c. BCE) paid a small daily allowance to those incapable of work because of disability, whether they are maimed in battle or citizens examined by officials.
They have to prove their poverty and cannot occupy high offices.

In Sparta, the law required the exposure and death of the disabled infant; elsewhere, social custom allowed or even encouraged this practice. However, this was not systematic as we have examples of living disabled people.

See: jstor.org/stable/10.2972/hespe

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Texts such as drama address the psychological or physical consequences of disabilities in a cruel humourous way, and philosophical ones use disability to prove the main argument or narrative as well as customary laws where they are mainly absent apart from priesthood rules.

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How were treated disabled people in the Greek world (i.e. Classical and Hellenistic Greece, roughly 5th–3rd century BCE)?

➡️ Greeks did not consider them as different, as long as they played a part in socio-economic life, one way or another.

Facts:
Archeologists found that around 10% of the remains show at least one fracture that could potentially cause a disability. 🦴
They are also numerous words to speak about impairments, but all very imprecise, echoing this social inclusion! 🔤

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A lot of solutions existed, like prosthetic limbs, walking sticks etc., and, in some instances, the medical treatment was taken care of by the state or the workplace and pensions existed even if the community took care of disabled people.

Studies reveal that some blind people, dwarfs, and hunchbacked held significant positions in high offices, and positions in the cult. ~nd

This is the case for the dwarf Djeho, a famous dancer of Memphis whose tomb is richly decorated ⬇️

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Religion is very important to understand disability.

It exists a "religious/moral model" in which disability could be a curse, BUT it could also be a blessing and may lead to rejection or inclusion.

This model seems to have worked in Egypt for integration.

The study of mummies reveals that congenital anomalies, as well as acquired impairments, were treated by medicine, and people were taken care of.

Some of them were kings, such as Siptah, with club foot (13th c. BCE)

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is already much easier to make, as, in addition to human remains, we also have texts & inscriptions, iconography, status, objects, etc. ~nd

Many historians worked studied it since the 95', you can have a little bibliography here: menestrel.fr/?-Handicap-&lang=

Those studies are mainly focusing on significant cases, such as for prehistoric times, showing disabled people's agency, but historians begin to draw more general features from them.

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Week 2 of the !

Fasten your seatbelts, we're off to , , and the Empire to see what information we can have on !

I will be your guide!

@histodons @disability @disabilityhistory

30 mai : Histoire du sport
- Yacine Tajri – Vers la scolarisation de la rééducation physique pour les élèves «déficients» dans les années 1940.
- Didier Séguillon – Le sport silencieux, un élément clé de l’identité sourde dans la première partie du 20e s.

Et dernière séance :
Mardi 6 juin 2023 : Table ronde : Débats autour des frontières de l'histoire du handicap, de la surdité, de la psychiatrie.

J'espère vous y rencontrer nombreuses et nombreux =)

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4 avril : Surdicécité
- Catherine Baroin – Surdité et cécité dans la vie publique et privée du citoyen romain.
- Soline Vennetier – Surdicécité et mobilisations collectives transnationales à la fin du 20e siècle

16 mai : Handicap & migrations
- Brégain Gildas – Les luttes des tuberculeux nord-africains soignés en institutions.
- Mariana Scarfone – La psychopathologie de la migration : patients nord-africains et psychiatrie française, 1930-1960.

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7 mars : Différences
- Evelyne Samama – Les mots pour le dire : le lexique antique de la surdité.
- JEANNE Damien – De la lèpre au covid: Penser la place des malades et la place du soin de la chrétienté médiévale à la société contemporaine.

21 mars : Genre & handicap
- Ninon Dubourg – L’histoire des prêtres handicapés, des Décrets médiévaux au Code de droit canonique de 1983.
- Collard Clement – Mutilés de guerre et masculinités pendant la 1re WW.

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31 janvier : Polémiques & handicap
-M. Chottin – La cécité au 18e s. Le problème de Molyneux a-t-il handicapé les personnes aveugles?
- D. Doat – Infirmité et préhistoire : retour sur une polémique précurseur de la bioarchéologie du soin.

7 février : Identification du handicap
- Bénédicte Lhoyer – L’Égypte pharaonique face à la différence et au handicap.
- Hélène Coqueugniot – Le handicap et sa prise en charge aux temps préhistoriques, quelles preuves ?

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3 janv. : Représentations visuelles
- Jules Masson Mourey – Les pieds-bots de la vallée des Merveilles : hypothèses autour d’une iconographie néolithique.
- A. Russakoff - Représentations de la cécité dans l’art médiéval (13e-14e s.).

17 janv. : Microhistoires & historiographies
- Fabrice Bertin – Donner à voir : Auguste Bébian, précurseur des Deaf Studies ?
- Anatole Le Bras – Aliénation mentale et handicap au XIXe siècle. Relire l’histoire des aliénés à l’aune des disability studies.

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29 novembre : Introduction
- F. Bertin, Gildas Brégain & Ninon Dubourg – Nouvelles perspectives historiographiques.
- P.-H. Ortiz (Univ. Angers) – Possibilités et difficultés de l'histoire de la folie dans les périodes anciennes, une histoire sans archives, sans cas et donc sans "sujet".

6 décembre : Handicap & inégalités sociales
- D. Lett (@univ Paris Cite) – Genre, pauvreté et handicap dans les Marches (Italie) au 15e s.
- A venir

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Programme 2022-2023 du séminaire "Construire une nouvelle histoire du handicap et de la surdité" de l'EHESS est en ligne!

Première séance le 29 novembre, inscription libre et gratuite ici : enseignements.ehess.fr/2022-20

12 séances cette année, un mardi sur 2 (environ), de 16h à 18h!!

Le séminaire est en français, LSF et sous-titré!

Ci-dessous, les résumés des interventions, que vous pouvez retrouver au lien suivant : dishist.hypotheses.org/2575

@histodons

This is absolutely fascinating, and there is a lot of numerous examples that you might find in the various type of publications (in different languages) that I post here...

I hope you learned something! I might add some interesting stuff during the week, but in any case, see you next week for Roman and Greek times!

Find this on at: twitter.com/Tweetistorian/stat

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